The 1950s and 1960s were a transformative phase in modern Irish history. In these years, a conservative society dominated by the Catholic Church, and a state which was inward-looking and distrustful of novelty, gradually opened up to fresh ideas. This book, now available in paperback, considers this change. It explores how the intellectual movement Tuairim ('opinion' in Irish), was at the vanguard of the challenge to orthodoxy and conservatism. Tuairim contributed to debates on issues as diverse as Northern Ireland, the economy, politics, education, childcare and censorship. The society established branches throughout Ireland, including Belfast, and in London. It produced frequent critical publications and boasted a membership that included the future Taoiseach, Dr Garret FitzGerald. Tuairim occupied a unique position within contemporary debates on Ireland's present and future. This book is concerned with its role in the modernisation of Ireland. It also addresses topics of continued relevance for the Ireland of today, including the Northern Ireland Peace Process and the institutional care of children.